This study aimed to combine with typical cases to study the translation of legal English from the perspective of functional equivalence in order to improve the quality of translation of legal texts and guide the translation of specific legal texts. It used literature review to review the theoretical and empirical research on functional equivalence theory, and the method of case study was used to describe how to apply functional equivalence theory in legal translation from three aspects: lexical level, sentence level and text level. Functional equivalence theory emphasizes that legal English translation is not a simple equivalent of literal form, nor is it limited to expression of literal meaning. It emphasizes the equivalence of legal function, emphasizing that what readers’ response to the translated information is basically the same as what they respond to the original text. That is equivalence of effectiveness and function, while considering the equivalence of forms. Under the guidance of the theory of equivalence, translators should adopt appropriate translation techniques such as literal translation, addition and subtraction of words, completing sentence, adjustment of word order, transformation of words based on the different characteristics of legal English vocabulary, sentence and text. They should master as much legal language as possible, understanding meaning and usage of these special terms, and paying attention to the different cultural backgrounds and habits of using the two languages in the translation to ensure the accuracy, rigor and effectiveness of legal translation. This study mainly studied the application of functional equivalence theory in the process of legal English translation from the three levels of word, sentence and text. In the lexical level, this study mainly discussed Old English, the lack of corresponding terms, ambiguous language, how to use functional equivalence theory in the process of legal English translation. In terms of sentence level, it mainly explored how long sentence, complete sentence, long sentence and nominalization structure can be translated by using functional equivalence theory. At the level of text, it mainly analyzed the veracity of language, the style of text, and the use of functional equivalence in the use of modal verbs, how to achieve cohesion and coherence in translation.
Keywords: legal English; translation; functional equivalence theory; lexical level; sentence level; text level
本文的研究目的是结合典型实例从功能对等的理论视角展开法律英语翻译的研究，以期对具体的法律文本翻译 起到一定的指导作用，从而提高法律文本的翻译质量。本文采用文献回顾的方法对功能对等的理论和实证研究进行了回顾，并采用了案例研究的方法从词汇，句子，篇章三个方面讲述了如何应用功能对等理论在法律翻译中。功能对等理论指出法律英语翻译不是字面形式的简单对等，更不是拘泥于字面意义的传达，而是法律功能的对等，强调译文读者对译文信息的反应和原文读者对原文信息的反应基本一致。即效力和功能对等，同时兼顾形式对等。在对等 理论的指导下，译者应针对法律英语词汇，句子，篇章的不同特征采取与之相适应的翻译技巧，如直译、增减词、完整 句法、调整语序、词类转换及长句拆译法，并须掌握尽可能多的法律特殊用语，了解他们的意义和用法， 悉知这些特殊用语的汉语对等语，同时注意在翻译中要考虑两种语言不同的文化背景和用语习惯，确保法 律翻译的准确性，严谨性和有效性。本文主要从单词，句子和篇章三个层次对于功能对等理论在法律英语翻译过程中的应用进行了案例研究，在词汇层面，本文主要讨论了古英语，缺乏对应的词汇，模糊语言如何利用功能对等理论进行翻译。在句子层面，本文主要讨论了长句，完整句，长句和名词化结构如何利用功能对等理论进行翻译。在篇章层面，本文主要讨论了语言的准确性，语篇风格，以及情态动词，衔接和连贯使用方面利用功能对等理论进行翻译的技巧。
Legal terms have stylized features, it has rigorous logic and obscure content. While legal terms are not easy to be grasped by a layman, but it can accurately express the concept of law without causing ambiguity (Sarcevic, 1997). Characteristics of legal English determine that legal English translation has its own unique problems and difficulties (Donat and Candel-Mora, 2015). At the same time, legal English translation requires the complete and accurate transmission of information such as rights, obligations, responsibilities and interests, and legal translation has a legal effect, its correctness not only affects the use of the law and even the justice of laws, but also affects international exchanges and cooperation (Sun, 2003). However, in practice, many legal translation practitioners ignore the uniqueness of legal English and do not form a se