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美国essay写作:体育用药的现状和历史 - 反兴奋剂的困难

论文编号:lw201901231432163239 所属栏目:essay写作 发布日期:2019年01月23日 论文作者:论文网
Introduction介绍
兴奋剂已成为竞技体育的主要焦点之一,也已成为竞技体育发展进程的障碍。本文将研究体育用药的现状和历史。从药物使用的历史和现状来看,本文将分析反兴奋剂的困难。
Doping has become one of the main focuses in competitive sports and it has become the obstacle in the development progress of competitive sports. This essay is going to study the current situation and history of drug use in sports. From the history and current situation of drug use, this essay will analyze the difficulties in anti-doping.
据史料记载,从公元前300年开始,古代奥运会运动员饮用白兰地,混合饮料酒或食用菌,以获得额外的“力量”,从而赢得比赛。一些运动员甚至将生物碱与酒精混合使其令人兴奋。但是,在那个时候,这并不是法律所禁止的。在现代,为了赢得比赛,采取各种饮料和补品的做法仍然很受欢迎。在19世纪,有很多关于游戏玩家兴奋剂的记录,其中大部分都发生在1896年第一届现代奥林匹克运动会之前。1865年,在阿姆斯特丹举行的游泳比赛中,首次报道了运动员服用兴奋剂的情况。那时,欧洲人经常举办一场自行车比赛,比赛时间为144小时,共计6天。这场比赛耗费精力。据报道,在六天内,比利时球员吃了一种浸泡在特殊药物中的糖。否则,为了与他们抗衡,法国运动员服用咖啡因片。同时,英国运动员吸入纯氧,服用士的宁,海洛因和可卡因。简而言之,这些运动员采取一切手段赢得胜利。这些自行车运动员的秘密很快就传遍了整个体育界。在19世纪末,一些拳击运动员通常在比赛前喝一杯,服用士的宁或其他药物。According to historical records, from the 300 BC, athletes of the ancient Olympic Games have drunken brandy, mixed drink wine, or edible mushrooms, to gain additional “power” so as to win the competition. Some athletes even mixed alkaloids with alcohol to make them exciting. However, at that time, this was not forbidden by law. In modern times, in order to win in games the practice of taking all kinds of drinks and supplements is still popular. In the 19th century, there are many records about game players doping and most of these had occurred before the first modern Olympic Games held in 1896. In 1865, in a swimming competition held in Amsterdam, the first report about athletes taking doping was reported. At that time, Europeans often held a kind of bicycle competition which would last for 144 hours, 6 days in total. This competition is energy consuming. It was reported that during the six days the Belgian players ate a kind of sugar which had been soaked in a special drug. Otherwise, in order to contend with them French athletes took caffeine tablets. While, British athletes inhaled pure oxygen and took strychnine, heroin and cocaine. In short, these athletes took all means to win. The secret of these bike athletes soon spread to the whole sports world. At the end of the 19th century, some boxing athletes usually had a drink before the game and took strychnine or other drugs.
The first death in sports related to athletes taking doping occurred in 1886. It was a British cyclist. He died of an overdose of drugs. The doping crisis affected the modern Olympic Games for the first time was happened in the 1904 Olympic Games in st. Louis. The American marathon runner Thomas Hicks took a large dose of strychnine mixed with egg white during the competition which gave rise to his falling down after crossing the finish line. In 1908 London Olympic Games, Italian marathon runner Dolan. Peter ran to the end point and collapsed to the ground because of taking strychnine. In the early days of the modern Olympic Games, the drugs taken are mostly the mixture of strychnine and alcohol. Till the second world war, Benzedrine replaced strychnine and became the option of athletes doping. Actually in the 1940s, not only the athletes taking Benzedrine, some countries in order to win in the war, gave soldiers Benzedrine so as to fight against their enemies . Even students, the night shift workers, truck drivers took it to cope with their sleepiness and tiredness. In the 1950s, the number of athletes taking doping increased sharply. In 1952, the winter Olympic Games was held in Oslo, Norway. It is the first time about Benzedrine doping incidents. Several speed skating athletes who had taken Benzedrine collapsed in the preliminaries.
In the history of Olympic Games, the famous “Benzedrine tragedy” finally happened. In the 1960 Rome Olympics, Danish cyclist, DE Jason died in road cycling race. It was reported that Jason had taking mixture of alcohol and Benzedrine before the competition. Jason’s death made international Olympic committee (IOC) determined to carry out the anti-doping movement. In 1961, the IOC Medical
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