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英国教育学essay:The Purpose of British Higher Education: Past, Present and Future

论文编号:lw201904101408161365 所属栏目:essay写作 发布日期:2019年04月10日 论文作者:论文网
1.0 Introduction引言
自18世纪以来,剑桥大学和牛津大学打破了宗教限制,开始了高等教育的精英教育,如今英国已成为世界上高等教育水平最高、规模最大的国家之一(Scott,1995年)。目前,英国高等教育机构包括90多所大学、123所学院、50所教育学院。值得注意的是,英国高等教育的宗旨及其相关政策并非一成不变,在两百多年的历史中,特别是近50年来,英国高等教育的宗旨和管理政策做出了许多调整。这些调整在解决英国高等教育的规模、教学质量和经费问题上取得了一定的成就和经验(Scott,1995)。这些调整为英国未来的高等教育改革提供了有价值的参考,也为其他发展中国家的高等教育发展提供了模式(Smith和Webster,1997)。本文研究了20世纪60年代以来英国高等教育的目标和政策调整过程,以期预测英国高等教育目标和政策调整的未来趋势。
Since the 18th century, the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford broke religious restrictions to begin elite education of higher education, and now Britain has become one of the countries in the world with the highest level and the largest scales of higher education (Scott, 1995). Currently, British higher education institutions include more than 90 universities, 123 colleges, 50 educational colleges. It is noteworthy that the purpose of British higher education and related policies are not static, in the history of more than two hundred years, especially in the last 50 years, the purpose and management policies of British higher education have made many adjustments. These adjustments have made certain achievements and experiences in solving the problems of scale, teaching quality, and funding of British higher education (Scott, 1995). These adjustments provide a valuable reference for the future reform of higher education in the UK, they also provide a model for the development of higher education in other developing countries (Smith and Webster, 1997). This study studies the purpose of British higher education and the adjustment process of the policies since the 1960s, so as to forecast the future trend of purpose and policy adjustment of British higher education.
2.0 British Higher Education (1960-1980)英国高等教育(1960-1980)
2.1 The Transformation of British Higher Education (1960-1980)英国高等教育转型(1960-1980)
《罗宾斯报告》是对20世纪60年代至80年代中期英国高等教育发展的预测和规划。该报告阐述了高等教育的目标和原则、1962年英国高等教育的现状、英国高等教育与其他国家的比较、对未来高等教育的预测和展望。R教育发展、经费问题、各部门的管理机制和职责,以及英国高等教育改革与发展面临的一系列重大问题(tasker,1993年)。30多年来,英国高等教育在办学政策、体制设计、发展战略、资金投入机制、管理运行机制和高校的建立、规模、监测、评价等方面发生了深刻变化。罗宾斯报告是英国高等教育从传统模式向现代模式、从精英高等教育向大众高等教育的过渡宣言(罗宾斯报告,1963年)。
Robbins Report is the forecast and planning for British higher education development during 1960s - mid-1980s. The report elaborates the goals and principles of higher education, the status of higher education in the United Kingdom in 1962, the comparison of higher education in the UK with other countries, the prediction and vision of future higher education development, funding issues, management mechanisms and responsibilities of various departments, as well as a series of major problems that British higher education reform and development faced (Tasker, 1993). After more than 30 years, profound changes have taken place in British higher education in school-running policy, system design, development strategy, fund investment mechanism, management operation mechanism and establishment, scale, monitoring, evaluation of universities, as well as other aspects. Robbins Report is the transition declaration of the British higher education from the traditional model to the modern model, from elite higher education to popular higher education (Robbins Report, 1963).
2.2 British Higher Education Policy (1960-1980)
2.2.1 Democratized higher education system 
2.2.2 Expanded scale of higher education, transforming from elite education to popular education
2.2.3 Diverse structure of higher education, forming multi-level, multi-standard education system 
2.2.4 More open higher education system 
3.0 British Higher Education (1990-2010)
3.1 Problems in British Higher Education (1990-2010)
3.1.1 Unsatisfactory scale of higher education and unequal opportunities for education 
3.1.2 Increased grants and reduced education funding 
3.1.3 Diverse students and unified education 
3.1.4 New requirements for learning ability 
3.2 British Higher Education Policy (1990-2010)
3.2.1 Establish new mechanisms to raise funds for higher education and broaden the sources of edu

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