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新西兰留学生经济报告作业:National Economic Report of New Zealand (2010-2016)

论文编号:lw201904101402391944 所属栏目:代写留学生作业 发布日期:2019年04月11日 论文作者:论文网
1.0 Introduction引言
新西兰位于太平洋西南部,是一个高度发达的资本主义国家。世界银行将新西兰列为世界上对商业最友好的国家之一,并成功地从以农业为主的经济体转变为具有国际竞争力的工业化自由市场经济体(Barbieri,2016年)。新西兰国土面积268680平方公里,在所有国家和地区中排名第75位。
New Zealand is located in the southwest Pacific, New Zealand is a highly developed capitalist country. The World Bank lists New Zealand as one of the most business-friendly countries in the world, and it has been successfully transformed from a predominantly agricultural economy to an internationally competitive, industrialized free market economy (Barbieri, 2016). New Zealand has a land area of 268,680 km2, ranking 75th among all countries and regions.
2015年新西兰总人口464万人,其中欧洲后裔74%,毛利人15%,亚洲12%,太平洋岛民7%。新西兰2015年的国内生产总值(GDP)为1737.54亿美元,人均国内生产总值为37340美元。2015年,新西兰人均国民总收入为40020美元(Giorgi和Gambetti,2017年)。2015年,新西兰失业率为5.4%。2015年新西兰的通货膨胀率为0.3%(Giorgi和Gambetti,2017年)。新西兰政府支出29.39亿美元,占当年国内生产总值的16.91%。2015年,新西兰政府预算赤字为-2.85亿美元,占GDP的-0.17%(CountryEconomy,2017年)。2010年至2016年,由于欧洲债务危机、中国经济放缓等因素导致世界经济形势不稳定,对新西兰经济造成了一定程度的影响,新西兰政府采取了一系列措施应对这些挑战,最终取得了良好的效果。确保新西兰经济的稳定发展。本研究介绍了2010-2016年新西兰经济发展中的一些问题,以及新西兰政府采取了哪些措施来解决这些问题,以及这些措施的效果。In 2015, New Zealand has a total population of 4.64 million, of which 74% are European descendants, 15% are Maori, 12% are Asian, and 7% are Pacific Islanders. New Zealand's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2015 was US $ 173,754 million, with per capita GDP of US $ 37,340. In 2015, New Zealand’s GNI Per capita was 40,020 dollars (Giorgi and Gambetti, 2017). In 2015, New Zealand's unemployment rate was 5.4%. Inflation in New Zealand in 2015 was 0.3% (Giorgi and Gambetti, 2017). New Zealand's government expenditure was US $ 2939 0million, accounting for 16.91% of its GDP in that year. In 2015, New Zealand's government budget deficit was -285 million US dollars, accounting for - 0.17% of GDP (Countryeconomy, 2017). From 2010 to 2016, due to the instability in the world economic situation caused by European debt crisis, China's economic slowdown, and other factors, it caused a certain degree of impact on the New Zealand economy, the New Zealand government has taken a series of measures to deal with these challenges, and eventually achieved good results to ensure the stable development of the New Zealand economy. This study presents some of the issues in New Zealand's economic development during the period of 2010-2016, and what measures that the New Zealand government has taken to address them, as well as the effects of these measures.
2.0 Main body
2.1 Diminishing marginal effect
2.1.1 Definition of marginal effect
2.1.2 The marginal effect of the real estate industry
2.1.3 Government measures to counter marginal effects
2.2 Unemployment rate
2.2.1 Causes of unemployment rate rise
2.2.2 Costs for unemployment rate rise
2.2.3 Measures taken by the government
2.2.4 Types of unemployment
2.3 Inflation rate
2.4 GDP
2.5 World economic cycle
2.5.1 Definition and performance of the world economic cycle
2.5.2 Global events links with recession
2.5.2.1 The impact of the US subprime mortgage crisis
2.5.2.2 The impact of European debt crisis 
2.5.2.3 Recession in emerging markets 
2.5.2.4 Bulk material prices fell sharply
2.6 Official cash rate
2.7 Multiplier effect and automatic stabilization effect
2.7.1 Multiplier effect of New Zealand's fiscal policy
2.7.2 Automatic stabilization effect
2.8 Crowding-out effect
3.0 Conclusion
From 2010 to 2016, despite there was relatively high inflation rate in New Zealand, the New Zealand government succeeded in keeping New Zealand's inflation rate at 1% -3% by raising OCR first and then lowering OCR to ensure that the economic fluctuations would not have a great impact on people's lives. During this time, especially after 2015, the New Zealand government has implemented an expanded fiscal policy, through increasing government spending, expanding domestic demands made New Zealand's economy keep a high growth rate at a time when the world economy was in recession. In order to stimulate economic development, the government of New Zealand adopted the policy of encour

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