日期:2019年11月08日 编辑:ad201107111759308692 作者:无忧论文网 点击次数:589
论文价格:300元 论文编号:lw201911061536061125 论文字数:52444 所属栏目:MBA论文范文
论文地区:中国 论文语种:English 论文用途:硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis

Chapter One Introduction

1.1  Background

Tourism has become one of the main stars of the global economy in the last years (by tourism, and as it is explained in the next chapter, we understand all of those activities that allow us to know places outside from our regular living place). 

Over the last decades, tourism has experienced a very important growth and evolution, becoming one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world, contributing in a big portion to the PIB of several countries, especially those in development (UNWTO, n.d.).; 

Many new destinations have emerged in addition to the traditional favorites of Europe and North America; an example of this are Thailand, Iceland, and Brazil, becoming a key driver for socio-economic progress in these regions.

According to the World Tourism Organization, the volume of tourism business around the  globe  can  even  surpass  the  oil  exports,  food products  or automobiles. “Tourism  has become  one  of  the  major  players  in  international  commerce.  This  growth  goes  hand  in hand  with  an  increasing  diversification  and  competition  among destinations” (UNWTO, n.d.).  Even when it is a truth that as an economic activity, travel, and tourism are relatively young, today, tourism generates 10% of the world’s GDP, 1 in every 10 jobs and 30% of world trade in services. 


1.2  Current Status

1.2.1  International status

International tourist arrivals (overnight visitors) in 2016 grew by 3.9% to reach a total of  1,235  million  worldwide,  an  increase  of  46  million  over  the  previous  year.  It  was  the seventh  consecutive  year  of  growth  in  international  tourism  following  the  2009  global economic  crisis.  A  comparable  sequence  of  uninterrupted  solid  growth  has  not  been recorded since the 1960s. Demand for international tourism followed the positive trend of previous years, with many destinations reporting sound results, while a few faced security incidents.  Some  redirection  of  tourism  flows  was  observed,  though  most  destinations shared  in  the  overall  growth  due  to  stronger  travel  demand,  increased  connectivity  and more affordable air transport. By UNWTO region, Asia and the Pacific led growth in 2016 with  a  9%  increase  in  international  arrivals,  followed  by  Africa  (+8%) and  the  Americas (+3%).  The  world’s  most  visited  region,  Europe  (+2%)  showed  mixed  results,  while available  data  for  the  Middle  East  (-4%)  points  to  a  decline  in  arrivals.  International tourism receipts grew by 2.6% in real terms (taking into account exchange rate fluctuations and  inflation)  with  total  earnings  in  the  destinations  estimated  at  US$  1,220  billion worldwide  in  2016  (euro  1,102  billion).  France,  the  United  States,  Spain  and  China continued  to  top  the international  arrivals  ranking  in  2016.  In  receipts,  the  US  and  Spain remain at the top, followed by Thailand, which climbed to number 3 last year, and China, which is fourth. France and Italy moved up in receipts to 5th and 6th position respectively, while  the  Unit