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不可能的爱情在中国寓言"梁山伯与祝英台"和欧洲歌剧"特里斯坦和伊尔索德"

论文编号:lw201904191149065926 所属栏目:戏剧论文 发布日期:2019年04月19日 论文作者:论文网
摘要
作为中西方重要的爱情故事典型,《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》和《梁山伯与祝英台》在各自文化和人群中引发了强烈的思考。梁祝作为中国民间文化的四大悲剧之一,在中华文化的土壤中生根发芽,吸引了一代又一代受众投入到故事的阅读、欣赏和传播中。由于两部名剧产生于不同的文化和社会背景,在故事产生和发展的起始阶段,有着诸多的差异,从外观上看,缺少直接对比的可能性。但由于两者作为爱情悲剧的属性,使其具有了比较“不可能爱情”的基础。
作为我国流传时间最久(超过1500年)、范围最广(覆盖大江南北、全国各地)、艺术表现形式最为丰富(传奇、地方戏、民歌等)的故事之一,梁祝故事的产生和发展具有极强的历史丰富性。从产生时间来说,大致出现在公元400年的晋朝末期。民间故事和传说中,对于梁祝故事有着丰富的记录、演绎和拓展,经过文人雅士的记录和发挥后,故事走向出现了变化。此后,经过人民群众的口头传播和加工,梁祝故事开始具备完整的故事雏形。但在宋朝之前,梁祝故事中主要以爱情故事内容本身为主,并没有关于反抗封建礼教限制,为爱殉情的具体细节描述。
歌剧《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》的创作灵感来自于威森东克夫人,对作者来说,在这段关系的结束中,失去的不只是一段充满失望和绝望的爱情,更是骄傲内心的崩溃。瓦格纳在性格上非常狂傲和自私,经常将自己幻想成为凌驾一切的伟人,而伟人面临的感情挫折,会引发内心巨大的波动和创作上的巨大改变。《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》歌剧中所表达的主题不是人类信仰的坚守和破灭,而是使信仰和爱情毁灭的东西。它对现实中由于爱欲导致的痛苦和背叛进行了深刻的描写。具有强烈象征意义的是,艺术家在体验到生活的不幸时,才能创作出感人至深的作品。在《特》剧第三幕的“爱之死”中,观众能够感受到的是无依无靠、孤苦伶仃的感觉,它既是对瓦格纳内心情感的描述,也是对自身体验的一种展示,而这种展示,在很大程度上触动了人们的内心。
本文将结合梁祝故事和《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》歌剧的爱情故事开展对比,寻找其共同点和差异,通过故事背景、内容以及价值倾向、创作态度等方面的比较,使读者对中西方故事中不可能爱情的共性及差异具有更加清晰、系统的认识,提升其艺术鉴赏能力和感受能力。在研究方法上,本文侧重于故事背景、故事内容和文化价值倾向等方面的对比。在研究目的方面,笔者期望通过对这两个故事的比较,使人们对不可能爱情的表现形式、共性及差异等形成较为系统的认识。
通过前面部分对梁祝故事和歌剧《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》的内容介绍、异同点对比,本文对两个不可能的爱情故事的过程、结局以及创作手法等进行了深入分析。两者虽然产生于不同的社会文化背景、伦理观念和社会状况都有着较大差异,但爱情故事在创作和传播方面也存在着比较的可能性,特别是在创作手法上,实现了现实主义与浪漫主义的良好结合。这两个故事能够广泛地进行传播,激发了人们对爱情的渴望和追求,并且把爱情的力量及为爱努力、为爱付出的高尚境界揭示出来。
作为在东西方爱情故事和戏剧创作等领域闪耀着光彩的作品,梁祝故事和歌剧《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》在创作动因、创作手法、对于爱情的态度以及最终的解决方面存在着共同点,而在人物身份、故事结构、悲剧产生原因以及伦理观念等方面,则存在着显著的差异,相信通过对这些共同点和差异的分析,可以增加读者对不可能爱情的表现、产生原因等异同点的认识,并最终提升读者文学作品的鉴赏能力。
关键词:不可能爱情,艺术表达,异同点
Abstract
As an important love story of a typical Chinese and western, "Tristan and isolde" and "the butterfly lovers" in their own culture and the crowd sparked intense thinking. Butterfly lovers as one of the four great tragedies of Chinese folk culture, take root in the soil of the Chinese culture, has attracted generations of audience into reading, appreciation and spread of the story. Due to the two stage produced in different cultural and social background, at the beginning of the emergence and development of the story, have many differences, look from the exterior, the possibility of a lack of direct comparison. But as a result of both as attributes of love tragedy, make its have compared the basis of "impossible love". 
Circulating in China the most long (more than 1500 years), the most widely (covering the great river north and south, across the country), art forms (legend, local opera, folk songs, etc.) the most abundant one of the stories, the history of the emergence and development of the butterfly lovers story with strong richness. From the produce time, generally appear in the late jin dynasty in 400 AD. Folk stories and legends, the butterfly lovers story has a wealth of records, deduction and development, after a literati, record and play, the story has changed. Since then, after the people's oral transmission and processing, butterfly lovers story began to have a complete prototype. But before the song dynasty, the butterfly lovers in the story are mainly composed of love story content itself, not about revolt against feudal ethical code limits, details description of the double suicide for love. 
Opera Tristan and isolde "of creative inspiration comes from the wesson east lady, for the author, in the end of a relationship, lost not just a love which is full of disappointment and despair, but the collapse of the proud heart. Wagner in personality is very proud and selfish, often will be over all the great men of his fantasy, and a great man face the feelings of frustration, can lead to heart huge fluctuations and creation on the huge change. "Tristan and isolde" opera theme is not expressed in human beliefs and burst, but to make destruction of faith and love. It to reality because lust studied the cause of the pain and betrayal. With a strong symbolic meaning, when artists to experience life misfortune, to create a touching work. In the third act ", "play" the death of love ", the audience can feel the feeling is lonely, alone, it is not only the description of Wagner, feelings, is also a display of their own experien
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