独立学院大学英语课堂教师汉英英语码转换的顺应性研究

独立学院大学英语课堂教师汉英英语码转换的顺应性研究

来源:www.51fabiao.org作者:lgg发布时间:2016-08-29 12:11论文字数:37297字
论文编号:fbo201608251831156357论文地区:中国论文语言:中文论文类型:硕士毕业论文
本文是英语硕士论文,本研究通过采用课堂观察,问卷调查和教师访谈研究方法对华商学院五名大学外语教师的课堂教学中的汉英语码转换情况进行了调查。
Chapter One Introduction
 
1.1 Background of the Thesis
Code-switching, here defined as “the systematic use of two or more languages orlanguage varieties within a single conversation or utterance” (Liebscher &Dailey-O’Cain 2005: 235), is a common phenomenon of language contact.Since 1970s, it has been a topic in various fields of research, like sociology,anthropology, linguistics, etc. Researchers from these different areas have differentresearch models and methods, and have reached a different conclusion according totheir different understanding for code-switching. Sociology considers code-switching asa social phenomenon, attempting from the macro level to research the internal relationsamong social factors and code-switching. Anthropology takes code-switching as animportant part of a particular society and social culture, or concrete reflection inlinguistic aspect. Linguistics considers code-switching as one part of communicator’scommunicative ability in the performance of language use (He Ziran and Yu Guodong,2001). In terms of linguistics, existing researches on code-switching can be divided intofour different directions, such as sociolinguistics, grammar, psycholinguistics, andconversation analysis. These four methods have one or some contributions tocode-switching, but none of them can fully and adequately explain the mechanism andfunctions of code-switching. So we need to have a broader and more explanatoryperspective study on code-switching, pragmatics is a good choice (Yu Guodong, 2000).Over the years, Chinese researchers show great interests in the research ofcode-switching and many researchers have done related studies on teachers’code-switching from different perspectives in China. However, many of them focus oncollege students of English majors or non-English majors, few researchers have donethe studies based on students of the independent college to analysis teachers’ Chineseand English code-switching in the classroom from the perspective of pragmatics. Basedon Verschueren’s linguistic adaptation theory, this thesis developed Yu Guodong’sadaptation model (2001) to study the adaptability and functions of teachers’ Chinese andEnglish code-switching in foreign language classroom and put forward a appropriatemodel for the independent college in which most students’ English level arecomparatively lower than that of universities with same degrees.
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1.2 Objectives of the Thesis
As an important teaching strategy, teachers’ code-switching in the classroom hasalready captured the attention of researchers and became a study focus in recent years.Specially, this research is significant in the following three aspects:Firstly, Using code-switching or not in English classroom has always been acontroversial focus since it comes up. Previous researchers believe that teacher shouldmaximize the degree of using the target language, for creating a complete targetlanguage environment for the L2 learners. They advocate that L2 learners should betotally immersed in the target language context, using the target language to express andidentify things directly (Turnbull & Arnett, 2002). For this reason, if teachers usemother tongue in the foreign language classroom, it is often considered to occupystudents’ effectively exposure to contact and acquire the target language. But, actually,students can not acquire L2 very well if they face language problems, such as languageproficiency, cultural obstacles in the process of learning (Cook, 2001). Hence, itrequires teacher’s timely, appropriate use of L1 to assist student’s better acquisition ofL2 in order to achieve a successful interaction in English classroom. Teachers’instructions can not be ignored when the students acquire L2 in class. Classroomcode-switching researches have witnessed a lot of theoretical and empirical attemptsand most researchers think that classroom code-switching has been an effective andpractical strategy in the second or foreign language learning and teaching. So as animportant teaching strategy, teachers’ Chinese and English code-switching in theclassroom deserves and needs studying.
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Chapter Two Literature Review
 
The literature review of the previous researches related to code-switching ispresented at first in this chapter, such as the definition of code and code-switching aswell as the classifications of code-switching. Secondly, four approaches to the analysisof code-switching from linguistics perspective as well as pragmatic approach will beintroduced in detail, including advantages and disadvantages. Thirdly, it shows the studyon classroom code-switching in the domestic and overseas.
 
2.1 Code-switching
Code is considered as a neutral term. Wardhaugh (1998:88) gives the definition ofcode as “any symbol systems used for communication, and the system can be alanguage or a language variety, besides, it can be a dialect, or register”. He emphasizesthe language, as an abstract code, is consisted of attached components, thesecomponents have different embodiment in different register or different social groups.Verschuere (1999) defines code as “a language variety that any language candistinguish”.As for the definition of code-switching, due to diverse research purposes,methodology as well as research subjects, it varies with different individuals, so a fact isformed that until today, there is no set definition of what defines the code-switching. HeZiran and Yu Guodong (He Ziran & Yu Guodong, 2001; Yu Guodong, 2001) roughlyclassifies the definitions of code-switching into three categories: (1) thinks existdifferences in terms of code-switching and code-mixing; (2) considers there is nodifference in terms of code-switching and code-mixing; (3) has a neutral point towardsthe relations between them. Some scholars (Auer, 1998; David Li, 1996) refercode-switching as inter-sentential switching as well as interpret code-mixing asintra-sentential switching, while some scholars (Appeal and Muysken, 1987;Verschueren 1999, etc.) give up discussing the difference between the above two typesof switching. They think it is not necessary to do such a distinction to cause chaos in theterms.In this research, code-switching is regarded as a cover term which not only paysattention to the sentence level but also thinks highly of the functionality of language. Inthis thesis, according to Jef Verschueren (1999), he thinks that using code-switching toexpress language or language variants is a kind of common phenomenon and a favoredstrategy.
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2.2 Previous Approaches to the Study of Code-switching
For many years, code-switching has attracted wide attention of linguists as acommon phenomenon of language contact. They make deep and broad research oncode-switching from five approaches. They respectively are the sociolinguistic approach,the grammatical approach as well as the psycholinguistic approach, which also includethe conversation analysis approach as well as the pragmatic approach.Many studies on code-switching conducted from the perspective of sociolinguistics(Appeal & Muysken 1987, Myser-Scotton 1993/1998, etc.), which is at the macro levelto explore the relations among code-switching and social factors. Social factors includerace, gender, age and social-economic status. Beyond that, they attempt to explore somesocial motivations behind code-switching. Sociolinguistic approach, as a way toresearch code-switching, aims at analyzing the relations in social factors and the structure of language. The center issue of this approach is “how language selectionembodies the right and inequality, or how language choice becomes a pointer to rightsand obligations of social group members” (Peter Auer 1998:3). What’s more, Gumperz(1982) considers code-switching as a social phenomenon, and proposes a series ofconversational code-switching, respectively are quotation, addressee specification, andinterjection, which also include reiteration, message qualification, as well aspersonalization vs. Objectivization. A typical sociolinguistic research onEnglish/Spanish code-switching in the area of Gibraltar is proposed by Moyer (1998),which aims to maintain the unique identities of the local people through code-switch.
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Chapter Three Adaptation Theory and Yu Guodong’s Adaptation Model.....16
3.1 Jef Verschueren’s Adaptation Theory.....16
3.1.1 Making Choices.....16
3.1.2 Variability, Negotiability and Adaptability..........17
3.1.3 Framework of Adaptation Theory........18
3.2 Yu Guodong’s Adaptation Model........... 19
Chapter Four Research Methodology.......22
4.1 Research Questions..........22
4.2 Subjects.....22
4.3 Instruments.......23
4.3.1 Classroom Observation.........24
4.3.2 Questionnaires.......24
4.3.3 Interviews.......25
4.4 Data Collection and Data Description........... 25
Chapter Five Analysis and Discussion..... 27
5.1 Adaptability of Teachers’ Code-switching in the Classroom.......27
5.2 Functions of Teachers’ Code-switching in the Classroom........... 39
5.3 Adaptation Model of Teachers’ Code-switching in the Classroom..... 40
 
Chapter Five Analysis and Discussion
 
This chapter aims to provide a detailed explanation to research questions of thisthesis, which is regarded as the most important part in this thesis by the author. After theintroduction of basic concept of code-switching, the literature review related tocode-switching study, the illustration of the theoretical framework as well as datacollection and description, special attention is given to analysis the adaptability andfunctions of teachers’ Chinese and English code-switching in foreign languageclassroom based on Verschueren’s linguistic adaptation theory. Moreover, this studyaims at finding the appropriate adaptation model in the independent college, which isdeveloped from Yu Guodong’s adaptation model.
 
5.1 Adaptability of Teachers’ Code-switching in the Classroom
According to Verschueren, “Adaptability is the property of language which enableshuman beings to make negotiable linguistic choices from a variable range ofpossibilities in such a way as to approach points of satisfaction for communicationneeds” (Verschueren, 1999: 61). His definition includes three characteristics: (1)linguistic adaptation has a specific objective for which it is carried out; (2) adaptation isregarded as a dynamic process with which communicators can make negotiablelinguistic choices; (3) linguistic adaptation is goal-driven in that the reason of makingchoices is to approach or achieve communicative purposes. As a means of linguisticadaptation, code-switching is also a goal-driven dynamic process in which languagechoices are made by teachers to realize or achieve specific teaching goals in theclassroom environment. In this chapter, Nineteen examples are analyzed in detail toillustrate its adaptability during the teaching process in terms of linguistic adaptationtheory from the teacher’s point of view. The specific functions of code-switching canalso be revealed in the process of analysis. The reasons why teachers switch codesduring the teaching process is due to adapt to their own factors, students’ factors as wellas linguistic reality. More specifically, teachers’ factors are divided into teachers’intentions and teachers’ roles. Students’ factors mainly are students’ physical feedbackand students’ linguistic competence.
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conclusion
 
The present study manages to make a contribution to the investigation of teachers’Chinese and English code-switching in the classroom. However, due to some inevitablysubjective and objective constrains in the process of research, some issues need to beimproved for further studies.Firstly, future researches should focus on collection of different sources of data, thequalitative and quantitative methods should be integrated in detail, such as moredetailed classroom observation of teachers and their students for an even longer time, ormore detailed research towards different grades and courses, etc, which is more helpfulin researching teachers’ Chinese and English code-switching in classroom from thepragmatic adaptability perspective.What’s more, in order to make students better learning and acquiring teachingcontents and make teachers who have less experience better use code-switching as akind of teaching strategy in the classroom, it’s necessary to establish some principles orframeworks for the use of teachers’ Chinese and English code-switching in Englishclassroom.
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The reference (omitted)