原型范畴理论视角下高职英语词汇教学的研究

原型范畴理论视角下高职英语词汇教学的研究

来源:www.51fabiao.org作者:lgg发布时间:2018-04-11 20:47
本文是一篇英语硕士论文,英语论文的写作,主要用于参加国际学术研讨会,促进中外学术文化交流;在国际学术刊物上发表,在国际上共享科研成果,英语论文也是达到学术交流的目的;
本文是一篇英语硕士论文,英语论文的写作,主要用于参加国际学术研讨会,促进中外学术文化交流;在国际学术刊物上发表,在国际上共享科研成果,英语论文也是达到学术交流的目的;另外英语论文还包括英语相关专业人员必要地用英语撰写学术报告或毕业论文等等。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英语硕士论文,供大家参考。
 
Chapter 1 Int roduction
 
1.1 Background of the Study
Vocabulary is the essential and basic part of learning English well. According tothe research, the quantity of the vocabulary really influences learners’ readingcomprehension, speaking, listening ability and translation level. So vocabularyteaching has the important position. And it is also the key to succeed in languageteaching. Under the guidance of the New Curriculum Reform, the students invocational college should mater about 3500-4000 words. Although students spend alot of time in memorizing the words, actually the result is not obvious. The studentscomplain about the complex of learning English and memorizing the words, they alsodo not know how to apply the words what they have obtained to the realcommunication. So the storage of learners’ vocabulary cannot reach thecommunicative need.In traditional vocabulary teaching, teachers regard the words as an isolated unit.The teachers usually pronounce the words, and then explain the words’ structures andgrammatical category. After that the teachers list words’ meanings and usages. At last,the teachers give the example sentences and do the practice. Nowadays it is noteffective to teach vocabulary in this isolated and repeated way in vocational college.What’s more, cognitive linguistics can be divided into psychology and linguistics.And cognitive linguistics theory also improves students’ language knowledge,enhance students’ ability to study independently and build feasible path for vocabulary learning.
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1.2 Significance of the Study
Vocabulary is very important in English learning. Teachers also take kinds ofmethods to improve the students’ quality and quantity of vocabulary. But the outcomeis not so obvious and satisfied. Especially for the students in vocational and technicalcollege, they have negative attitude on learning English. The basic reason is that theydon’t have enough vocabulary to read, write, etc. It is a vicious circle and the circlecan be broken by a large quantity of vocabulary. Due to the current situation ofvocabulary teaching in our country, it is really a big problem how to improve thevalidity of vocabulary teaching. Prototype Theory in cognitive linguistics is effective in vocabulary teaching both in the theoretical meaning and practical meaning.Theoretically, Prototype Theory becomes more and more important in recentyears both in China and abroad. But this theory is usually used in reading and writing.Prototype Theory has little researches in vocabulary teaching, especially for thestudents in vocational and technical college. The students in vocational and technicalcollege are usually neglected, but actually they are an indispensable part in ourresearches. They need almost 3500 words to pass the exam for their graduation. Sothe thesis aims to fill in the blanks of application of Prototype Theory on vocabularyteaching in vocational and technical college. The thesis can give a reference forteachers in vocational and technical college on vocabulary teaching.Practically, the research is to expand the application of Prototype Theory. Of course,this research can also help the teachers improve their teaching ability. According tothe vocabulary teaching, the students could have their semantic network. They canmemorize several words through the prototypical word. In this way, the students havethe positive attitude and autonomy in vocabulary learning. The students can alsoenlarge their vocabulary size and improve the ability of word comprehension. Thestudents in vocational and technical college can overcome the obstacles in vocabularylearning easier by using Prototype Theory.
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Chapter 2 Literature Review
 
Prototype theory is a main theory in cognitive linguistics. This chapter reviewsthe definition of prototypes, relativity of prototypes, characteristics of prototypicalcategories, theoretical foundations of prototype theory, vocabulary teaching.andprevious studies on prototype theory abroad and home.
 
2.1 Prototype Theory
Prototype Theory was put forward by the classical theory of categories. It isalso the product which philosophy, cognitive science aimed to overthrow the classicaltheory of categories. Since 1960s, classical theory of categories has been commenteda lot. In 1970s Rosch, cognitive psychologist, proved the limitations of classicaltheory of categories, and then he put forward prototype theory. It means a beginningera which is Prototype Theory.Rosch, Psychologist, and W, Labov, linguist, (1973) proposed the definition ofthe prototype firstly. “Prototype is regarded as the most typical one in the category”.And the prototype is usually seen as cognitive reference point.Rosch pointed “the essence of the prototype theory is when people explain acertain phenomenon, take one member as the prototype, hold the overall features ofthis prototype, and master other members in this category”(Rosch, 1975: 59)Then Rosch stated the “Prototype Theory” that most natural category couldn’tformulate necessary and sufficient standards. The “prototypes” had special status and were regarded as formal members in the categories. But the “non-typical” memberswould be informal ones according to the degree of their resemblances to their“prototypes”. Based on the experiment and papers, Rosch proposed the “PrototypeTheory”.There were also other researchers who did great contributions to PrototypeTheory. L. Wittgenstein, (1950s) is the first one who found the flaws of the classicaltheory of categories. Then Wittgenstein stated “family resemblance”. Wittgensteinfound 1) the boundaries are not clear. 2) He could not use one common semanticfeature to include its all members. 3) The status of central member is not equal to themarginal members. It was the first form of Prototype Theory.Berlin and Kay (1969) pointed “focal color”. The perception of focal color isidentical among different languages. From the viewpoint of language, thecharacteristics of “focal color” are as follows: 1) they are not included by other words.2) Their grammar is simple. 3) They are not limited in collocation. 4) Their frequencyof usage is much more. It is the development of Prototype Theory.
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2.2 Theoretical Foundation
In this part, relevant theories would be introduced like “category andcategorization, the classical theory of categories, basic level categories, two cognitivemechanisms” these related theories are the theoretical foundation associated withPrototype Theory. These theories are the basis of the experiment.“Category” is a vague term which usage is very large in cognitive linguistics.There are so many things in the world so that human will classify them when they seethe similarities. Lakoff pointed that “If we haven’t the ability of category, we evencannot have any effect on the outside world and spiritual world” (Lakoff ,1987:163).This cognitive process is “categorization”. Categorization is based on experience,interaction, generalization. It is also a basic ability in advanced cognitive activitiessuch as, human thoughts, languages, inference, etc. When people are classifying theconcrete issues, they usually ignore the differences but emphasize on their commoncharacters. And then people generalize and classify the same or similar issues to formcategory and concept. Hence, category is the product of categorization. Category isthe starting point of concept, lexical meaning formation and language application. It isalso the core part of cognitive linguistics. But it is the boundary between classical theory of categories and Prototype Theory whether all members in the same categoryare in the equal position.
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Chapter 3 Methodology......26
3.1 Research Questions...............26
3.2 Subjects.........26
3.3 Instruments....27
3.3.1 Questionnaire...........28
3.3.2 Pre-test and Post-test............28
3.3.3 Interview..........29
3.4 Procedure.......30
3.4.1 Procedure in Control Class...............30
3.4.2 Procedure in Experimental Class.....31
3.5 Data Collection and Analysis............35
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion..............37
4.1 Results...........37
4.2 Discussion.....47
4.2.1 Discussion on Students’ Attitude and Autonomy toward VocabularyLearning after.............47
4.2.2 Discussion on Improving Students’ Vocabulary Size............50
Chapter 5 Conclusion .........53
5.1 Major Findings..........53
5.2 Pedagogical Implication........54
5.3 Limitations of the Study........55
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research.....56
 
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion
 
The aim of this paper is to explore the application of the prototype invocabulary teaching in the vocational college. The researcher collected the data fromthe questionnaire, the pre-test and post-test, and the interview. So in this chapter theresearcher presents the results and the discussion of two research questions.
 
4.1 Results
The researcher has collected the data from the questionnaire, the pre-test andpost-test, and the interview. The results of these data will be presented in this section.There are three parts in my questionnaire. The first part is about the students’attitude and current situation towards vocabulary learning. The second part is aboutlearners’ autonomy. And the last part is about the students’ attitude towards currentvocabulary teaching. The data of the first part could be seen as follows:Q1-Q3 showed the students’ attitude towards vocabulary learning. Moststudents held a negative attitude in vocabulary learning because they encounter thedifficulty in memorizing the words. There are 59.2% students present they are notinterested in English lessons. 74.4% students agree vocabulary is very important inlanguage learning. 72.4% students think that memorizing the words is not a easy task.Q4-Q5 was to testify the current situation of vocabulary learning in vocationalcollege. The results were not much optimistic. Although vocabulary has a great effecton learning English, 75.4% students show that they haven’t mastered that muchvocabulary size and 73.5% students don’t know the real meaning in polysemouswords.
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Conclusion
 
In this chapter, the researcher concludes what have been discussed above. Andthere are four parts in this chapter including major findings, pedagogical implication,limitations of the study and suggestions for further research.According to this thesis, there are two major findings which are presented asfollows:On one hand, through the questionnaire and the interview, the results of thestudents which were taught in the method of vocabulary teaching in Prototype Theoryhas improved in the aspects of attitude and autonomy. The students in theexperimental class are more active and confident; they have more opportunity to showthemselves. They ignore the way of just memorizing the words after class. After class,the students automatically do the vocabulary size with high effectiveness andcorrectness. During the experimental process, the students don’t think memorizing thewords is a difficult and tedious task which promotes the ability to learn language andother language skills. The students in experimental class improved their attitude andautonomy on vocabulary learning.On the other hand, through the comparison the results which are pre-test andpost-test, it is easy to find that students in the experimental class have improved a loton vocabulary. The mean in the experimental class is much higher than the one in thecontrol class. Actually, the students in the control class also improve after a semester, but the improvement is not evident. The students in the experimental class have asignificant improvement both on the vocabulary size and the depth of wordcomprehension according to the scores of the post-test. The students can memorize aseries of words according to take one as the prototype. And they have betterunderstanding on the polysemous words and know how to use them in the realsituation. So Prototype Theory has a positive effect on students’ vocabulary teachingin vocational college.
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References (abbreviated)