速记策略在大学英语听力教学中的运用实证研究

速记策略在大学英语听力教学中的运用实证研究

来源:www.51fabiao.org作者:lgg发布时间:2018-05-21 20:28
本文是一篇英语硕士论文,英语专业是培养具有扎实的英语语言基础和比较广泛的科学文化知识,能在外事、经贸、文化、新闻出版、教育、科研、旅游等部门从事翻译、研究、教学、管理工作
本文是一篇英语硕士论文,英语专业是培养具有扎实的英语语言基础和比较广泛的科学文化知识,能在外事、经贸、文化、新闻出版、教育、科研、旅游等部门从事翻译、研究、教学、管理工作的英语高级专门人才的学科。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英语硕士论文,供大家参考。
 
Introduction
 
In language acquisition, exposure to input has been an importantapproach to proceed the acquisition of target language naturally. Listeningcomprehension, as one of language skills, is not only used to get abundantinput, but also to perform in daily communication. Listeningcomprehension is an information process in which new information wouldbe perceived, interpreted, stored, and finally applied to old one to makecommunication proceed fluently. Whereas discourse is organized andcoded in vocal, and delivered coherently in a linear way that cannot berecasted (Buck, 2001), memory is regarded as one of the important factorsto obtain information, and listening should be regarded as one of the keytasks in college English teaching.In college English listening teaching, teachers seldom teach studentshow to listen to materials, let alone teach students how to get informationas much as possible and extend their memory. In listening class, mostteachersfollowthiskindofroutineprocess:givingstudentssomequestionsrelated to listening materials, asking them to listen to the tape and finallychecking the answers by listening again. Students only get the informationrelated to questions and pay no attention to others in materials. However,listening in daily life not only includes getting information for specificquestions, it is mainly used to communicate and improve social status(Oxford, 1990). In College English Curriculum carried out by the Ministry of Education in July 2007, students are required to “use English in a well-rounded way, especially in listening and speaking”, and they will be ableto communicate effectively in their further studies, future careers, andsocial intercourses, and be able to study independently and “improve theirgeneral cultural awareness so as to meet the needs of China’s socialdevelopment and international exchanges”. In views of this, listening partin CET-4 and CET-6, since 2016, have been modified by adding listeningto news and lectures in the place of short dialogues and short passages.Theword number of news ranges from 130 to 190, and lectures can be up highto 450. This change shows that we should pay more attention to learners’performances in real life and their individual developments, and it requireslearners to obtain different skills for advanced materials, such asinterpreting long sentences, acknowledging complicated syllables, andrecognizing technical terms, as well as language learning strategies. 
Listening information process is hard to be observed, it occurs in humanbrains within few seconds. But we still can use some overt behaviors tomake a survey on it, such as eye-tracking and notes.The purposeofthe studyis to examinetheeffectsofshorthandstrategiesand note-taking in college English listening. Both shorthand strategies andnote-taking have two functions: (1) the encoding function and (2) theexternal function (Di Vesta & Gray, 1972). Since sensory memory onlylasts for 4 seconds or less before new information replace the old one(Anderson J. R., 1985), encoding can activate the learners’ attentionaldevices and engage the learners’cognitive processes of coding, as well astransform the information to personally meaningful input. The externalstorage function is to serve as an external repository of information thatlearners use for later revision and review, and is also a stimulus to recallthe information heard about. In consecutive interpreting, there is adifference between shorthand strategies and note-taking strategies. Note-taking includes listening for specific information and listening for the gistof the passage, while shorthand strategies are usually used in dictation andhelp learners repeat the whole passage (Zhao Yiwen, 2010). Learnersinterprettheinputsroughlyandtakedownwhatisimportant,innote-takingprocess, information has been selected and sorted cognitively at a primarylevel. When using shorthand strategies, learners take down the wholepassage that they have heard without analysis. In views of this, manyresearches had been conducted to examine the importance and effects onnote-taking in college English listening (Dunkel P., 1985; Carrol, 1983;Hale G., 1991), especially for listening to lectures, but seldom had themfocused on how to use shorthand strategies when taking notes. Researchershave been studying on notes since 1920s, and most researches focus onwhether notes can improve learners listening. 
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Chapter One Literature Review
 
This chapter gives a detailed introduction to relevant researches oninformation comprehension process, the effects of notes, as well as theusage of shorthand strategies.
 
1.1 Memory Models for Listening Processes
In 1968, Atkinson & Shiffrin proposed a memory model and theyasserted that human memory comprises three separate components:sensory memory (sensory register), short-term store (working memory),and long-term store.Sensory memory is perceptual systems, when information enters humaninformation processing system via variety of channels associated with human differentsenses,itoperatesonthisinformationtocreateperceptions.However, processing ability is limited and information is one-off, mostincomingin for mationcannotbedealtwith.Certaininformationthatpeople“noticed” will be attended to and last a bit longer in sensory memory.Sensory memory can explain why you can hear someone asking youquestions even though you weren’t listening to him or her. According toAtskinson & Shiffrin, sensory memory can be divided into iconic memoryand echoic memory. The former is the information attended to visualsystem, and the latter auditory system. Items in iconic memory decay afteronly 0.5 to 1.0 seconds, in echoic memory lasts for 1.5 to 5 seconds.Without notice, much of the information in sensory memory decays and isforgotten. Other information remains and transfers to the short-termmemory. Short-term memory or working memory can lasts for 18 to 20seconds without reinforcement, and its duration could be as long as 30seconds with appropriate modality. 
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1.2 Listening Comprehension Processes
Listening comprehension is a process in which learners interpret thematerials stage by stage and ultimately get access to the real meaning ofmaterials. In order to get information in a limited time, learners aresupposedto activatetheirinnerknowledgeand priorexperienceforabetterunderstanding. Many linguists are interested in how the listening materialsare processed in brain, and large quantity of studies have been conductedin this field. In this part, some material processing models and theirrelevant theories are presented.Eysenck and Keane (1990) pointed out that “SCHEMA” was firstlydisplayed in philosophy theory of Kant’s, and people regard it as an innatestructure serving to help people feel, recognize, understand, and interactwith the world.According to Kant, individual is isolated to the world, andconcept is meaningful only with individual experience or originalknowledge. Bartlett (1932) claimed that schema was a response or activeorganization of past experience. Schema is a coupling between cognitiveconcept and perception objects, it comes from people’s daily experienceand is transferred into a more general and abstract pattern. Eysenck andKeane postulated that schema was the chunk of concepts: concreteconcepts in real life were categorized and grouped into different categoriesby their shapes, colors, functions, happening time, actions, and other traits.For example, schema “CONTAINER” includes teacups, mugs, glasses, aswell as bowls, boxes, cabinets, everything that contains belongs to“CONTAINER”. As the basis of cognition, schema relates to everything,it not only refers to physical objects, such as cars, books, water, orbuildings, it also involves actions, events, spatial relations, temporalrelations, and other abstract concepts. People use it to express themselveseverywhere.
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Chapter Three Methodology.....43
3.1 Research Design .......... 44
3.1.1 Research Questions..... 44
3.1.2 Research Subjects....... 45
3.1.3 Research Instruments.......... 46
3.2 Research Procedure...... 48
3.2.1 Data Collection........... 54
3.2.2 DataAnalysis...... 59
Chapter Four Results and Discussion.......62
4.1 The Differences of Shorthand Strategies Use among Subjects... 62
4.2 The Effects of Shorthand Strategy Training on Note-taking....... 75
4.3 The Relationship between Shorthand Strategy and ListeningPerformance....... 81
 
Chapter Four Results and Discussion
 
In this chapter, the results and discussion are presented in detailaccording to the amount of effective data collected from the experimentdescribed in chapter three. The main instrument used in the study for thequantitative analysis are SPSS 19.0 and Excel which aims to get a reliableconclusion.ThestatisticalmethodsusedforanalysisweretheIndependent-Sample T-test, the Paired Samples T-test and Frequency Analysis. Anoverlook on the results of pre-test and post-test are presented, then athorough analysis on two questionnaires indicating subjects’ attitudes tostrategy training and their perception on advancement of shorthand notesis also presented in the following.
 
4.1 The Differences of Shorthand Strategies Use among Subjects
The pre-questionnaire shows how subjects of two levels diverse inshorthand notes before strategy training. Subjects’appetites in taking notesand English learning have an effect on the later performances, thefollowing table present the frequency and the percentage of the subjects’different habits and knowledge in shorthand notes. Table 4.1 presents aseries questions about note-taking habits of both experimental groups andcontrol groups of two levels. Results are shown in table 4.1 as below:
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Conclusion
 
In chapter four, data from two questionnaires and two tests, as well asthe contents of notes from subjects in four groups are analyzed by SPSS19.0 and Excel, and the results of data are discussed in detail. This chapteris the conclusion of the thesis. In this chapter, the major findings of thisstudy and the experiment are presented, furthermore, the implications forfurther English listening teaching, the limitations and demerits from theprocess ofthis experiment, as well as the suggestions for furtherresearchesare stated.Listening is regarded as one of the most significant skills forcommunication and language learning. With researches on listeningprocess being conducted, several information process models have beenproceeded to probe listening process. Among these models, top-downmodel and bottom-up model are the most popular two investigating whatmaterials that listeners pay attention to. Different to these two models,Anderson proposed a Three-Phase listening comprehension model todescribe how listeners receive, recognize, categorize and interpretinformation conveyed by sound signals. He divides listening process intothree stages, in accordance with Atskinson & Shiffrin’s Multi-storememory model, and then he discusses what listeners are supposed to do ineach stage. In this empirical study, the shorthand strategies are mainly usedin perception and parsing stage to grab information.
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References (abbreviated)